Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast

Three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging methods have advanced tremendously during recent years. Traditional tomography uses absorption as the contrast mechanism, but for many purposes its sensitivity is limited.

The introduction of diffraction small-angle scattering refraction and phase contrasts has increased the sensitivity, especially in materials composed of light elements (for example, carbon and oxygen). X-ray spectroscopy in principle, offers information on element composition and chemical environment. However, its application in 3D imaging over macroscopic length scales has not been possible for light elements....