According to Reverdia, Biosuccinium - a succinic acid with 100% bio-based content - enables the production of a bio-based polybutylene succinate (PBS) with a substantially improved carbon footprint. PBS is a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a single polymer or in compounds for both durable and biodegradable applications. Other applications include polyols for polyurethanes, coating and composite resins and phthalate-free plasticisers. End products include footwear, packaging, paints and many more. According to Tristen Li, Reverdia's NBD Manager for greater China, Biosuccinium is a drop-in replacement for fossil-based succinic acid in PBS. Furthermore, he explained: "Various studies have demonstrated the technical feasibility in a multitude of applications, with similar or even improved performance when compared to the typical fossil-based benchmark. Examples include improved abrasion resistance in microcellular polyurethanes and better chemical resistance in thermoplastic polyurethanes based systems. Biosuccinium is produced from renewable, plant-based resources. Using a proprietary biotechnology process, feedstock is converted to Biosuccinium, via a unique low pH yeast process, developed by Reverdia, the joint venture between DSM and Roquette. This yeast-based fermentation process ensures a consistent product quality. It is also environmentally friendly, it uses non-fossil raw materials, sequesters carbon dioxide (CO2), is energy efficient, and does not produce unnecessary by-products. Reverdia says it offers the plastics industry a unique opportunity to reduce environmental impact, become less dependent on fossil resources, and differentiate their products on the basis of an improved sustainability profile. In addition to meeting the material needs of the Chinese customers, the company also highlights its value as a development partner to the Chinese plastics industry. Tristen Li: "In China, both the government as well as enterprises are paying more and more attention to bio-based or bio-degradable products due to their concern about the environment. We are in various approval stages with Chinese companies that are active in the areas of polybutylene succinate (PBS), polyester polyols for polyurethanes, coating and composite resins and (phthalate-free) plasticisers. In fact, most of them are not only working with us as a supplier, but also as a co-developer of various markets. They use our ability to create pull for their products downstream in the market, especially in European and US regions where the market presence of some Chinese companies is currently more limited. In December 2012 Reverdia began operations for Biosuccinium in Cassano Spinola, Italy, with a capacity of about 10,000 t/y; the world's first dedicated large-scale plant for the production of succinic acid from renewable resources. With this facility up and running, Reverdia says it is preparing for a next phase with further expansion of its production and business opportunities. According to Marcel Lubben, President of Reverdia, the introduction of Biosuccinium meets the need to reduce the environmental impact: "As we move from a fossil-fuel-based economy to a more sustainable bio-based one, manufacturers are looking for alternative solutions. Biosuccinium provides a sustainable alternative to fossil-based raw materials.