A graphene-based broadband optical modulator

Integrated optical modulators with high modulation speed, small footprint and large optical bandwidth are poised to be the enabling devices for on-chip optical interconnects.

Semiconductor modulators have therefore been heavily researched over the past few years. However, the device footprint of silicon-based modulators is of the order of millimetres, owing to its weak electro-optical properties.

Germanium and compound semiconductors, on the other hand, face the major challenge of integration with existing silicon electronics and photonics platforms....